Renewable energy for alternative energy

Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy derived from "natural processes ongoing", such as solar power, wind power, water flow biological processes, and geothermal.
To find out more about the use of renewable energy in modern society, see the development of renewable energy. For a general discussion, see future energy development.

The definition of "Renewable".
The concept of renewable energy to fame in the 1970s, in an effort to offset the development of nuclear energy and fossil fuel. The most common definition is the energy source that can be quickly restored back naturally, and the process is ongoing. By this definition, the nuclear and fossil fuels are not included in it.
Sustainable Energy
By definition, all renewable energy is certainly also a sustainable energy, because always available in nature in a relatively very long so no need to worry or anticipate will run out of its source. The bearers of non-nuclear energy does not include nuclear power as part of sustainable energy as supplies of uranium-235 in nature there is a limit, say hundreds of years. However, nuclear activists have argued that nuclear energy, including sustainable if it is used as fuel in fast breeder reactor (FBR: Fast Breeder Reactor) nuclear fuel because the backup could "give birth" hundreds to thousands of times.
The reason for this, reserves discussed nuclear energy experts in the order of tens or hundreds of years it is implicitly calculated by assuming reactor used is ordinary reactor (BWR or PWR type generally), which in fact can only burn the U-235. On one side of the U-235 content in nature no more than 0.72% only, the remaining approximately 99.28% is U-238. Of uranium U-238 is in a state of combustion "regular" (used as fuel in reactors usual) can not produce nuclear energy, but when mixed with U-235 and put together into a breeder reactor, along with consumption / combustion U -235, U-238 experienced a reaction to the capture of one neutron and transformed into U-239. Within minutes the U-239 decays while issuing beta particles and re-transformed into Np-239. Np-239 also returned while emitting beta particles it decays into Pu-239. Pu-239 is this, which although not available in nature but is formed as a byproduct of combustion of U-235, has the ability to divide and produce energy as U-235. It is conceivable if all U-238 numbering thousands of times more than the U-235, successfully transformed into Pu-239, how an increase in the numbers of nuclear fuel. Something similar happens to atoms [thorium-233] that with the arrest of one neutron reactions transformed into U-233 which has the capability chain reaction (nuclear reactions).
That is why certain developed countries are reluctant to leave despite the risk of radioactive nuclear that receives no light. Fast breeder reactor such as that possessed by North Korea got the strict supervision of the IAEA for being able to produce new fuel Pu-239 is susceptible misused for weapons of mass destruction.
On the other hand the opponents of nuclear tend to use the term "sustainable energy" as a synonym of "renewable energy" to exclude nuclear energy from the energy group discussion [need citation needed].

The main sources of renewable energy:

1. Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy comes from radioactive decay in the center of the Earth, which makes Earth the heat from the inside, as well as from the heat of the sun that makes the hot surface of the earth. There are three ways geothermal utilization:
• For power plants and used in the form of electricity
• As a heat source which is utilized directly using a pipe into the earth
• As a heat pump that pumped directly from the bowels of the earth
Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is a form of thermal energy or thermal energy generated and stored in the earth. The heat energy is energy that determines the temperature of an object. Geothermal energy comes from the energy of planet formation (20%) and the radioactive decay of minerals (80%) [1]. Geothermal gradient, which is defined by the difference in temperature between the earth's core and the surface, controlling the continuous conduction occurs in the form of heat energy from the core to the surface of the earth.
Earth's core temperature reaches more than 5000 ° C. Heat flows by conduction toward the rocks around the Earth's core. This heat causes the rocks to melt, forming magma. Magma flow of heat by convection and moving up because of magma in the form of molten rock has a lower density than solid rock. Earth's crust and the magma heats the water flowing in the earth's crust, heating it up to 300 oC. This raises a hot water high pressure so that water comes out of the earth's crust [2].
Geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas. Hot steam or water can be used underground, brought to the surface, and can be used to generate electricity. Geothermal power sources are in some parts of the geologically unstable as Iceland, New Zealand, United States, Philippines, and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone dome and in northern California. Iceland produces geothermal power and energy flow to 66% of all houses in Iceland in 2000, in the form of direct thermal energy and electrical energy through power generation. 86% of existing homes in Iceland utilizing geothermal home heating.

2. Solar energy
Solar panels (photovoltaic arrays) on a small yacht at sea can charge the battery of 12 V to 9 ampere under conditions of full and direct sunlight.
Solar Energy
Solar energy
Since most renewable energy comes from is "solar energy" term is a bit confusing. But the question here is collected energy directly from sunlight.
Solar power can be used for:
• Generating electricity using solar cells
• Generate electricity Using solar tower
• Heating the building directly
• Heating the building via heat pumps
• Reheating food Using a solar oven.
• Heating of water through solar-powered water heaters
Of course, the sun does not provide constant energy to any point on Earth, so its use is limited. Solar cells are often used to charge the battery, in the daytime and the power of the battery is used at night when sunlight is not available.

3. Wind energy
The temperature difference at two different places produce different air pressure, resulting in the wind. Wind is the movement of matter (air) and has been known for a long time were able to drive the turbine. Wind turbines used to generate kinetic energy and electrical energy.
Wind energy
Wind energy
 Available energy from the wind is a function of wind speed; when the wind speed increases, the energy output also increased up to the maximum limit of the energy produced by the turbine is able to. Regions with stronger winds and constant as offshore and high altitude, usually preferred to build "wind farms".

4. Water Energy
Water energy is used because it has mass and is capable of flows. Water has a density of 800 times that of air. Even the slow movement of water is able to be converted into other forms of energy. Water turbine is designed to obtain energy from various types of reservoir, which is calculated from the amount of water mass, height, until the water velocity. Water energy is used in the form of:
·         Dam power plant. The largest is the Three Gorges dam in China.
Water energy
Water energy
               Micro-hydro is built to generate electricity up to a scale of 100 kilowatts. Commonly used in remote areas that have many sources of water.
·                      Run-of-the-river built by harnessing the kinetic energy of the water flow without the need for a large water reservoir.

5. Biomass
Plants usually use photosynthesis to store solar energy, air, and CO2. Bio-fuels (biofuels) are fuels derived from biomass - organisms or products of animal metabolism, such as feces from cows and so on. It also is a source of renewable energy. Typically biomass is burned to release the chemical energy stored in it, the exception when the biofuel is used to fuel the fuel cell (eg, direct methanol fuel cells and direct ethanol fuel cell).
Biomass Struktur
Biomass Struktur
Biomass can be used directly as fuel or to produce other types of fuel such as biodiesel, bioethanol or biogas depending on the source. Biomass in the form of biodiesel, bioethanol, and biogas can be burned in internal combustion engines or boilers directly with certain conditions.
Biomass into a renewable energy source if the rate decision does not exceed the rate of production, because basically biomass is a material produced by nature in a relatively short time through a variety of biological processes. Various cases of the use of non-renewable biomass has occurred, such as the case of deforestation Roman times, and is now happening, deforestation amazon. Peat is also true that pendefinisiannya biomass as a renewable energy quite biased because the rate of extraction by humans are not comparable with the rate of growth of the peat layer.
There are three forms of the use of biomass, which is in solid, liquid, and gas. And in general there are two methods for producing biomass, ie by growing organisms and the use of biomass waste materials processing industries result of living beings.

6. Liquid biofuel
Liquid biofuel usually shaped bioalcohol such as methanol, ethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used in modern diesel vehicles with little or no modifications and can be obtained from waste vegetable and animal oils and fats.
Bio alcohol
Bio alcohol
 Depending on the potential of each area, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, and several types of grasses cultivated to produce bioethanol. While biodiesel is produced from crops or crops that contain oil (palm oil, copra, castor seeds, algae) and has gone through various processes such as esterification.

7. Solid biomass
Direct use is usually in the form of combustible solids, either wood or flammable plants. Plants can be grown specifically for combustion or may be used for other purposes, such as processed in specific industries and waste processing results which can be used as a fuel is burned. 
sawdust as a alternative energy fuel burned
sawdust as a alternative energy fuel burned

 Briquetting biomass also use solid biomass, in which the raw material can be a piece or pieces of solid biomass raw or through certain processes such as pyrolysis to increase the percentage of carbon and reduces the water content. Solid biomass can also be processed by means of gasification to produce gas.

8. Biogas
Various organic materials, biologically by fermentation, or in physico-chemical gasification, can release flammable gases.
Biogas cycle process

Biogas can easily be produced from a variety of industrial wastes that exist today, such as paper production, sugar production, livestock manure, and so on. Various waste streams must be diluted with water and allowed to naturally ferment, producing methane gas. The residue of the fermentation activity is fertilizer rich in nitrogen, carbon, and minerals.
Small-scale energy sources
  • Piezoelectric, an electric charge resulting from the application of mechanical stress on the solid object. This object converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
  • Clock automatically (Automatic watch, self-winding watch) is a watch that is driven by the stored mechanical energy, which is obtained from the user's hand movements. Mechanical energy stored in the spring mechanism inside. 
  • Platform electrokinetic (electrokinetic road ramp) is the method of generating electrical energy by harnessing the kinetic energy of a moving car on a foundation that is installed on the road. A foundation has been installed in the parking lot of the supermarket Sainsbury's in Gloucester, United Kingdom, where the electricity generated is used to drive the cash register.
Catch the electromagnetic radiation that is not utilized and convert it into electrical energy using a rectifying antenna. This is one method of harvesting energy (energy harvesting).

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